The Future of Electronics: Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDs) and Their Potential in Transistor Applications
The International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS) has identified the 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDs) family of materials as potential substitutes for silicon in transistors and other beyond-CMOS applications by 2028. This article explores the potential of TMDs in the electronics industry, highlighting recent research advancements and future challenges.
Understanding 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDs)
TMDs are a family of materials with distinct electronic, optical, and mechanical properties. These properties make TMDs attractive for use in electronics, optoelectronics, and energy storage devices. Among the TMDs, molybdenum disulfide (MoS) has been the focus of recent research because of its unique properties and potential applications.
Recent Advancements in TMDs Research
There have been significant strides in the growth of high-quality TMD materials on a wafer scale. Notably, Li et al. reported the epitaxial growth of 2-inch single crystal monolayer MoS and the epitaxy of bilayer MoS on sapphire engineered with atomic steps in 2021 and 2022. These achievements have sparked substantial interest from academia and industry, leading to collaboration requests from enterprises.
Growth and Nucleation of Van der Waals (vdW) Metal Films on 2D Surfaces
Research has also delved into the growth and nucleation of van der Waals (vdW) metal films on 2D surfaces like MoS2 and graphene. The growth mode of indium (In) and gold (Au) on these surfaces was compared, revealing the higher diffusivity and lower nucleation density of In compared to Au. A strong enhancement in Raman signal intensity was observed due to localized surface plasmon resonance in the presence of a vdW gap.
Phonon and Raman Scattering of TMDs
Studies on the phonon and Raman scattering of TMDs across different material forms, including monolayer, multilayer, and bulk, have provided valuable insights into the properties of TMDs. The impact of these properties on potential applications is a subject of ongoing research.
Use of TMDs in 2D Inorganic Organic Heterostructures
Researchers have used the Langmuir Blodgett (LB) monolayer deposition technique to form 2D inorganic organic heterostructures with TMDs MoS2 and WSe2. The heterostructures with Zn TPP 1f monolayers showed a different optical response despite the similarities between the TMDs. The use of organic materials in 2D heterojunctions has been highlighted due to their diverse functionalities and low cost. However, more work is needed to develop methodologies for the precise deposition of organic films.
TMDs in Green Hydrogen Production
Two-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal chalcogenides (TMDCs) and other 2D nanomaterials are being researched for use in water splitting for green hydrogen production. The goal is to find safer substitutes for petrochemical fuels. This research underscores the need for advanced synthesis methods and characterization instruments to improve the catalytic activity of 2D stacked hybrid monolayer nanomaterials.
Challenges and Future Directions
Despite the promising potential of TMDs in the electronics industry, several challenges remain. There is a need for more research to fully understand the properties of TMDs and how to manipulate them for specific applications. The development of cost-effective and scalable production methods is also critical for the commercial application of TMDs. The future of TMDs in electronics looks bright, but the journey to get there will require concerted efforts from both academia and industry.