What is Monkeypox

Learn about monkeypox, a viral disease similar to smallpox but less severe and contagious. Discover how the virus is transmitted, the symptoms and progression of the disease, and the available diagnostic and treatment options. Find out how to prevent monkeypox through measures such as social segregation, masks, ventilation, and proper hygiene practices.

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As the globe begins to recover from COVID-19, the monkeypox virus poses a threat. More than a dozen countries have been confirmed to have monkeypox, a disease similar to smallpox but less severe and contagious.


It is not uncommon for monkeypox, a viral zoonosis prevalent in the rainforests of Central and West Africa, to infect humans. Non-human primates, Gambian pouched rats, dormice, rope squirrels, and tree squirrels are just a few of the creatures that can contract monkeypox.

Transmission of the monkeypox virus occurs by direct or indirect contact with an infected animal, person, or object. While COVID-19 and measles can be transferred through minute droplets and airborne particles, monkeypox is more easily prevented.

The infection can enter the body through wounds on the skin, the respiratory system, or the mucous membranes (eyes, nose, or mouth). Transmission from animal to people can occur by bites, scratches, the preparation and consumption of wild meat, or through physiological fluids or lesion material. Cases appear to be rising among males who have had sex with other men recently, despite the fact that the virus is not sexually transmitted.


As the disease progresses and the body's temperature rises, so does the number of blisters on the body. There is a rash, or "pox," on the patient's face that spreads to other parts of the body within a few days.

Real-time PCR and/or sequencing of viral DNA in skin lesions are used to diagnose monkeypox. The incubation period for monkeypox ranges from 5 to 21 days. The rash and pustules of monkeypox might last for months, but the symptoms are usually gone within a few weeks.

Medical problems and death are side effects of some disorders. Mortality ranges between 1-10% depending on strain. Disease and death are on the rise among children, young adults, and immunocompromised individuals. Smallpox vaccines and therapies are successful in protecting against monkeypox, but there is no specific therapy for the disease.


Antiviral drugs and immunoglobulins are effective against the monkeypox virus since it is linked to the smallpox virus. According to African studies, the smallpox vaccine is 85% effective against monkeypox. FDA-approved attenuated live virus vaccination for smallpox and monkeypox, Jynneos (Imvamune or Imvanex), is administered as two subcutaneous injections spaced out over a period of four weeks.

Monkeypox can be avoided with measures such as social segregation, masks, ventilation, and the use of antiviral medications when unwell. Because it favors surfaces, this DNA virus prefers to live on infected hands.

Avoid touching diseased materials, such as bedding, in order to keep monkeypox at bay.

Keeping a safe distance from regions where monkeypox is prevalent or where it is an epidemic.

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