The Interplay of Obesity Indices and Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis
Analyzing the Association of Obesity Indices and Cardiovascular Disease
A comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted to scrutinize the relationship between alterations in obesity indices and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, CVD-specific deaths, and all-cause mortality. This analysis was conducted in adherence to the PRISMA guidelines and involved a thorough search of five databases for pertinent articles. Only studies that met the specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were shortlisted for data extraction and quality evaluation. To identify the correlation, dose-response meta-analyses for absolute and relative changes in obesity indices were performed. Subsequently, subgroup analyses were carried out to investigate potential sources of heterogeneity. All statistical analyses were performed using R software, and the level of significance was set at P<0.05.
Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease in People with HIV
One study conducted a retrospective analysis involving people with HIV (PWH) commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART) and individuals without HIV (PWoH). This study aimed to evaluate the changes in body mass index (BMI) over a period. The study included 8,256 PWH and 129,966 PWoH. The results indicated that PWH experienced a greater increase in BMI within the first two years of ART use compared to PWoH. This increase was observed across all ART classes. Recognizing excessive weight gain and obesity as significant health concerns among PWH on ART, the study sought to better understand weight gain among PWH considering interrelated HIV and non-HIV factors as well as age-related weight gain.
Cardiovascular Risk Factor Profile and Mortality
Another study assessed the association between cardiovascular risk factor profile and premature all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality among US adults aged 65. The study used data from the National Health Interview Survey linked to the National Death Index. The study found that individuals with poor cardiovascular risk factor profiles had a significantly higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality compared to those with optimal profiles. This association was consistent across age, sex, and race/ethnicity subgroups. The study emphasizes the importance of targeted prevention efforts to achieve optimal cardiovascular risk profiles in order to reduce the burden of premature mortality in the US.
Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease, and Pharmacological Interventions
The rising prevalence of obesity and overweight worldwide and its adverse health effects, particularly its direct involvement in the development of CVD, is a cause for concern. One article underlines the importance of acknowledging obesity in clinical practice and amplifying efforts to diminish obesity-related cardiometabolic risk. Interestingly, the article mentions the beneficial effects of pharmacological interventions, especially GLP-1RA compounds, on body weight loss, blood pressure reduction, and CV mortality. The SELECT trial, which studied the effects of semaglutide on cardiovascular outcomes in people with overweight or obesity, demonstrated a 20% reduction in the composite outcome of death from CV causes, nonfatal MI, or nonfatal stroke. The trial also showed a mean change in body weight of 9.4% with sustained weight reduction throughout the follow-up period.