Ingestible electronics are making a significant mark on the healthcare industry, particularly in the field of gastrointestinal health. This innovative technology has shown immense potential in tracking and treating gastrointestinal diseases in real time. Advancements in the development of ingestible electronic pills have enhanced their sensitivity, lifetime, and location awareness, bringing forth a new era of precise and efficient healthcare.
Innovations in Ingestible Electronics
Researchers are continuously making strides in designing and developing ingestible capsules. These designs take into account the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the gastrointestinal organs to ensure the effectiveness and safety of the devices. At the core of these designs are essential components such as sensors, actuators, integrated circuits, communication, power, packaging, localization, and locomotion. These elements combined provide a comprehensive system-level design that meets the requirements and constraints of the application.
The team of researchers at MIT, for instance, has received funding to develop ingestible devices for the oral delivery of mRNA to treat metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. These devices could also potentially be used for needle-free delivery of mRNA vaccines. This project aims to develop electroceuticals, a new form of ingestible therapies based on electrical stimulation of the body's hormones and neural signaling. The team is collaborating with investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital, New York University, and the University of Colorado School of Medicine under the support of ARPA-H.
Investigations and Trials
Several clinical investigations are in progress to evaluate these innovative ingestible medical devices. A pilot study by Pelican Health involving 15 healthy volunteers is currently underway. This study aims to establish the safety and performance of a novel ingestible device designed for collecting small intestinal liquids. Multi-omics analysis will be conducted, including metagenomics, metabolomics, and culturomics, to demonstrate the difference between the retrieved sample from the device and the corresponding fecal sample.
Tackling Obesity with Ingestible Electronics
MIT engineers have also developed an ingestible capsule that vibrates in the stomach. This capsule simulates fullness by activating stretch receptors, thus reducing food intake by about 40% as observed in animal studies. The non-invasive approach is seen as a cost-effective alternative to current obesity treatments. The pill, about the size of a multivitamin, includes a vibrating element powered by a small silver oxide battery that activates the vibrating motor once in the stomach. It stimulates the release of hormones that signal satiety, thereby reducing appetite and food intake. The current design of the pill allows it to vibrate for about 30 minutes after arriving in the stomach. However, researchers plan to adapt it to stay in the stomach for longer periods, where it could be wirelessly controlled as required.
Challenges and Future Directions
Despite these promising advancements, several challenges need to be overcome to fully realize the application potential of ingestible electronics. Ensuring the safety, functionality, and efficiency of these devices while considering the anatomical and physiological constraints of the human body is a primary concern. However, with ongoing research and development, the future of ingestible electronics in gastrointestinal healthcare looks promising.