Ministry of Health and Human Services in Turks and Caicos has stated that it is monitoring reports of monkeypox, which have been increasing and are now being reported in numerous nations the world over. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there have been at least 10,000 cases of monkeypox reported in sub-Saharan Africa.
Surveillance will only get more widespread, according to the Ministry, which predicted that more cases would be reported as awareness of the epidemic grows. Although no incidents have been reported in the Caribbean, it is critical that people be aware of the situation as it develops.
Monkeypox is a viral disease that is common in Central and West Africa. The news of the virus’ expansion to non-endemic nations is unusual. Individuals may get encephalitis after coming into contact with someone who has the virus. Cases have been identified in people who travelled to Nigeria or had direct contact with individuals affected by the disease. The majority of cases that have been reported since May 14, 2022, had no history of travel before symptom onset.
The total number of monkeypox infections confirmed in England since May 6, according to the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA), is twenty. On May 7, 2022, the UKHSA first discovered one case of monkeypox in a person with a recent trip to Nigeria. Subsequently, additional illnesses have been discovered, some of which have been linked to each other and others that are possibly unrelated.
The spread of E. coli infections has been recorded in several countries and continents, including England, Denmark, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, the United States (particularly Minnesota), Belgium/Netherlands and Canada. Community transmission is a concern because there were many cases in Europe as well as other nations such as Denmark and Sweden. The World Health Organization (WHO) held an emergency meeting on Friday, May 20, to discuss the syndrome. WHO is coordinating efforts with afflicted nations in order to boost disease monitoring to discover and assist individuals who may be susceptible and also to offer advice on how to manage the symptoms.
Surveillance is already in place, and additional cases will most certainly be discovered as a result of it. The CDC has stated that many more people may become infected as a result of this outbreak. Residents of Turks and Caicos who have travelled to or are returning from countries where cases have been identified should be aware of the indications of infection and visit a doctor if they believe they might be at risk.
Understanding how Monkeypox is transmitted
Monkeypox does not easily spread from one person to another. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with an infected animal (rodents are thought to be the major reservoir for human infection), people, or materials contaminated with the virus. Human-to-human transmission is most likely through big respiratory droplets and direct skin contact with bodily fluids or lesion material. Because respiratory droplets are generally unable to travel more than a few feet, close face-to-face contact is required.
The infection is transmitted via broken skin (whether visible or not), the respiratory tract, or mucous membranes (eyes, nose, or mouth). Contact with clothing or linens (such as bedding or towels) used by an infected person, direct contact with monkeypox skin lesions or scabs, and coughing or sneezing of someone who has a monkeypox rash are examples of person-to-person transmission.
Bites or scratches from infected animals, preparing wild game (where the virus is present in animals of Central and West Africa), and direct or indirect contact with body fluids or lesion material are all possible ways for animal-to-human transmission to occur. Individuals, particularly gays, bisexuals, and MSM people, should be on the lookout for any odd rashes or outgrowth on any part of their bodies, especially their genitals. If they have worries, they should contact a health care provider.
In the past, monkeypox has never been described as a sexually transmitted disease, despite ample proof that indeed it is transmitted via sexual activity.
The incubation period is the length of time that passes between coming into direct contact with an infected individual and when the first symptoms appear. The monkeypox incubation period ranges from 5 to 21 days, and fever, headache, muscular aches, backache, swollen lymph nodes, shivers, and exhaustion are some of the early symptoms. Within a day or two, a rash forms on the face, and then it spreads all over the body. There are three distinct stages of the rash, which can vary in appearance and severity. It may resemble chicken pox or syphilis before ultimately developing a scab that flakes off.
The illness is usually mild and self-limiting in duration of 2-4 weeks, although it can occasionally be severe, particularly in those with weakened immune systems and youngsters. Affected people may perish in rare instances.
How is it treated?
Treatment for monkeypox is mainly supportive. The illness is mild in most cases and almost all of those who get it will recover within a short time period without therapy.
Although a vaccine for monkeypox does not exist, vaccines against smallpox may be used for both pre and post-exposure prophylaxis and are up to 85% effective in preventing it. Those who have been vaccinated against smallpox as children might experience a milder illness.
The Ministry of Health has confirmed that it will continue to monitor developments and provide updates as required.