The Challenge of Low-Value Care
The US healthcare system is grappling with a significant concern: low-value care. Defined as medical practices that result in more harm than benefit to the patients, low-value care not only increases healthcare costs but also reduces patient trust in the system. According to Dr. Thomas Radomski, an assistant professor of medicine and health services researcher at the University of Pittsburgh, the prevalence of low-value care is primarily due to the fee-for-service payment system and the fear of missing out on serious conditions. Early back imaging for back pain and prostate-specific antigen testing for older adults are commonly cited examples of low-value care.
Efforts to Reduce Low-Value Care
Substantial efforts have been made to combat this issue. One such notable initiative is the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM) Choosing Wisely campaign. This campaign encourages clinicians to avoid unnecessary medical tests, treatments, and procedures that do not improve patient health. However, despite these interventions, reducing low-value care remains an uphill task.
Interventions Showing Promise
While the challenge is significant, some interventions have shown potential in reducing the use of low-value services. These include patient education, where patients are informed about the potential harm and unnecessary costs associated with low-value care. Additionally, clinician commitment to the recommendations of the Choosing Wisely campaign has also shown to be effective. By being more mindful of these recommendations, clinicians can avoid prescribing unnecessary tests and treatments, leading to a decrease in low-value care.
Healthcare Reform and Innovation
Addressing low-value care is an integral part of healthcare reform in the US. Discussions are ongoing on value-based preventive drug benefits, economic policies for managing hypertension, Medicare Part D coverage, and alternative payment models. The implementation of regulatory mandates, prior authorization, and tailored care for marginalized individuals also have the potential to counteract the prevalence of low-value care.
Quality of Healthcare: A Key Focus
Alongside these efforts, there is a growing focus on healthcare quality. Evaluations of quality measures, reduction of unnecessary patient harms, and the use of AI in healthcare are some of the initiatives being explored to improve the quality of care. One such program is the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program. Managed by the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the program rewards hospitals for the quality of care provided to Medicare patients, encouraging them to improve efficiency, patient experience, and safety.
Value-Based Care: The Future of Healthcare
As the healthcare landscape evolves, there is an increasing shift towards value-based care. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) aims to have 100% of traditional Medicare beneficiaries and the majority of Medicaid beneficiaries in accountable care relationships by 2030. Home-based care providers are also transitioning to this model, demonstrating the growing importance of value-based care in the future of the US healthcare system.
Low-value care is a persistent issue in the US healthcare system, contributing to unnecessary costs and patient harm. However, efforts are underway to address this problem, with a growing emphasis on patient education, clinician adherence to best practice recommendations, and the implementation of value-based care models. As these interventions take root, it is hoped that the prevalence of low-value care will reduce, leading to improved patient outcomes and a more efficient healthcare system.