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The 'One Allergy' Concept and the Interplay of Genetic and Environmental Factors in Allergic Diseases

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Ethan Sulliva
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The 'One Allergy' Concept and the Interplay of Genetic and Environmental Factors in Allergic Diseases

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Understanding the 'One Allergy' Concept

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Allergic diseases have often been a topic of intense research, primarily due to their common incidence and the significant impact they have on the quality of life. Traditionally, diseases such as food allergy, eczema, and asthma/rhinitis were thought to be caused by different exposure pathways. However, a relatively new concept, known as 'one allergy', is challenging this traditional understanding.

The 'one allergy' concept proposes that all allergic diseases, irrespective of their manifestation, share a common exposure pathway, known as the skin-gut-lung axis. This viewpoint postulates that the pathogenesis of allergic diseases is a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors, rather than being caused by separate and distinct pathways.

Early Life Exposure to Air Pollutants and Allergic Diseases

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Increasing evidence from various epidemiological studies suggests that early life exposure to air pollutants through the airway significantly increases the risk of allergic diseases in children across the globe. This revelation implies that prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution could be closely associated with the development of allergic diseases such as food sensitization, asthma, and eczema.

This perspective paves the way for considering allergic diseases as systemic diseases with different manifestations at different sites, rather than isolated conditions with distinct causes.

The Role of Gut Microbiota in Allergic Rhinitis

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Research has delved into the concept of 'one allergy' and the skin-gut-lung axis in allergic diseases, particularly focusing on Allergic Rhinitis (AR). Studies indicate that the pathogenesis of AR includes epithelial barrier disruption, immune regulation, and a significant role of gut microbiota.

Gut microbiota disruptions are involved in AR's pathogenesis, and the gut-nose axis's regulatory role in the pathogenesis of AR is emerging as a new field of study, providing novel directions and ideas for AR treatment. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) has been shown to ameliorate nasal symptoms and reduce nasal mucosal inflammation in AR mice by restoring the disordered gut microbiota, repairing the epithelial barrier, modulating CD4 T cell balance, and exerting anti-inflammatory effects.

Genetic Factors and the Nasal Microbiome

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A study exploring the relationship between human genetic variation and the nasal microbiome reveals that the host genome plays a significant role in shaping the nasal microbiome. There were strong correlations found between the top three host genetic principal components and the nasal microbiota diversity and composition, with 63 genome wide significant loci affecting the nasal microbial taxa and functions identified.

This research suggests that the host genome and the microbiota mutually influence each other, creating an intricate relationship that can significantly impact health and disease.

The Interplay between Microbiota and γδ T Cells

Further research has delved into the role of microbiota in regulating γδ T cells and the influence of microbiota-derived metabolites on γδ T cell responses. The interaction between the microbiota and these immune cells highlights the significant impact on immune homeostasis and intestinal neuro-immune regulation, paving the way for a deeper understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying allergic diseases.

Overall, the 'one allergy' concept and the intricate interplay of genetic and environmental factors in allergic diseases offer a comprehensive perspective that can significantly influence future research and treatment approaches for these conditions.

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